For about six months now, I’ve been using Mutt as my email client. It’s not perfect (as the tagline on the official website admits), but it works for me.

It took a long time of hacking around before Mutt began to save me time, and the initial time investment probably isn’t worth it unless you enjoy the journey as much as the destination. Philosopher and programmer extraordinaire John MacFarlane recently confessed that “I would like to think that the time I’ve spent developing tools to make writing more efficient has been repaid by the time I’ve saved using these tools, but I’m pretty sure it hasn’t.” The same probably applies to Mutt.

That disclaimer means that this essay is less a sales pitch than a running log of tricks I’ve learned about Mutt along the way, aimed at someone who has already imbibed enough of the kool-aid to install the program and give it a try. If there’s nothing here you didn’t already know, you can also check out my Pinboard links on Mutt or my muttrc, but the best source of information remains the manual.

Why When I Started Using Mutt

This was originally going to be a section on why I use Mutt, but as I have already implied, Mutt has its reasons of which Reason knows nothing. Besides, I am an historian by trade, so I tend to think that “why” is often a question of when.

If I recall correctly, I started using Mutt not long after reading Stephen Ramsay’s Life on the Command Line, which included a sales pitch for an even more archaic email program (or set of programs) called nmh. I was interested enough in his description to read a little more about nmh, but that didn’t take long because there’s not much support documentation for it on the web. Or, at least, there wasn’t enough to read that was intelligible to me. At that time, I had just started learning about Unix, and while I was ready to try some command-line tools, it was clear that Mutt would be a more comfortable place to start than nmh.

What appealed to me about both nmh and Mutt was the ability to use a plain text editor like Vim to edit email. Around the time I read Ramsay’s post, I had begun to experiment with plain text for doing my scholarly writing, largely for the reasons that Lincoln Mullen later detailed in this post. I was using the excellent editor TextWrangler, but my brother had also been twisting my arm to try Vim. I was worried about the steep learning curve for Vim, but using it for email seemed like a good way to test it out and see if I wanted to use it exclusively. (Turns out, I did.)

The other thing that appealed to me about Ramsay’s description of nmh was the ability to “pipe” email messages directly to other command-line programs. I had recently developed a plain-text system for Getting Things Done, and I was also beginning to experiment with a workflow for grading on my iPad. I imagined using a program like nmh or Mutt to take an email with a student paper, press one or two keys, and have the paper converted to PDF, moved to a folder that synchronized with my iPad, and added to my GTD system. Eventually I figured out how to get Mutt to do that, too, but first there were a few essential tweaks I had to implement just to make Mutt work-able for everyday mail.

Essential Tweaks and Tips


It took me a couple of months of using Mutt before I realized that all the messages I was sending to other people included weird line breaks. That’s because I didn’t know about format=flowed. You can read all about it here, or you can just trust me when I say that you want all of your plain text messages to be in this format. Otherwise, they will look ugly and barely readable when your recipients open them on their iPhones or email clients, as they probably will.

To set this up requires small changes both within Mutt and within Vim. In my muttrc I had to add this line

set text_flowed=yes

Then, within Vim, I edited the filetype file that Vim uses for mail to include this line:

setlocal fo+=aw

So far, those two tweaks seem to be working. No more ugly linebreaks!

Setting Up Contacts

From the beginning, I knew that Mutt wasn’t going to be worth my time if I couldn’t easily import or auto-complete my contacts when writing emails. Fortunately, Mutt has its own syntax for creating aliases, which basically means creating a long text file with lines that look like this:

alias mcdaniel-caleb Caleb McDaniel <>

That makes it possible to simply type mcdaniel-caleb (or a part of it) when composing a new message and hit “tab” to have it completed from the alias file. Hitting tab a second time shows all of the matches in the alias file, which can also be searched from within Mutt, so it’s never hard to find an alias … assuming the alias is there.

The practical question I faced was how to build an alias file from scratch, without having to look up all the emails I cared about and convert them into the Mutt alias syntax. I wanted the alias file to be created automatically, so that emails I needed would auto-magically appear in my “to” line, much like they did when I was using Apple Mail.

The solution I found was to use an obscure Mutt setting called set display_filter. Typically I think this setting is used to pass a message through an external script that filters out any unwanted text before displaying it. So, for example, if I never wanted to see the words “strategic dynamism” in an email, I could write a shell script that simply used sed or some-such tool to remove or replace the phrase before showing me the message.

Thinking of this setting simply as a “display” filter limits its real utility, though. What it really does is this: it pipes every message you look at through a shell script—any shell script—before showing it to you. Once I realized that, I wrote a script that takes a message, finds the email address of the sender, creates a Mutt alias from that address, checks to see if that alias is already in my alias file, and then, if not, appends the new alias to my contact list. Finally, the script shows me the original, unmodified message. The script looks like this:



NEWALIAS=$(echo "${MESSAGE}" | grep ^"From: " | sed s/[\,\"\']//g | awk '{$1=""; if (NF == 3) {print "alias" $0;} else if (NF == 2) {print "alias" $0 $0;} else if (NF > 3) {print "alias", tolower($(NF-1))"-"tolower($2) $0;}}')

if grep -Fxq "$NEWALIAS" $HOME/.mutt/aliases.txt; then
    echo "$NEWALIAS" >> $HOME/.mutt/aliases.txt

echo "${MESSAGE}"

All of this happens faster than the blink of an eye, and the result is this: anytime I choose to open a message in Mutt, the sender is automatically added to my alias list.

This method allowed me to rapidly create an alias file from scratch, and it usually means that when I press “tab” to find an alias, I can expect it to already be there. But this isn’t a perfect solution for a couple of reasons. One, there are some services (I’m looking at you, Evite) which send emails with a personal name in the “from” field even though the field contains a service-specific reply-to address. Two, this methods makes for a very long alias file that sometimes contains ugly aliases from mailing lists. But the first issue has only been a problem for me once, and it’s easily fixed by deleting the “bad” alias from the alias file. And the second issue is seldom a problem because I rarely open the aliases text file.

Having a lengthy alias file also makes it easy to look up email addresses simply by piping the alias file through grep. This can be especially useful when writing an email within Vim. Let’s say I wanted to send Joe Smith’s email address to a third party; while writing that email, I could simply run this command within Vim:

:r !grep smith-joe /path/to/aliases.txt

That will (usually) put the relevant line from my aliases file directly into my email message, without my ever having to leave Vim or open up a new window. If this was a frequent use case, I could even make a user-defined command for my vimrc that would grab just the email address and use a shorter syntax.

Despite the advantages of using the Mutt alias file, I also sometimes want to be able to look up addresses in my Apple Address Book from within Mutt. I use this handy method to do that. Using these two methods together, I would estimate that I am able to easily autocomplete email addresses 98% of the time. When composing a message, I just tap the first few letters of the recipient’s last name and press tab once or (if there are multiple matches) twice. If no Mutt-defined aliases comes up, I just finish typing the last name and hit Ctrl-T, and 9 times out of 10 it grabs the email address from my Address Book instead.

Using offlineimap and notmuch

My current Mutt setup allows me to sign in directly to my university IMAP account and edit messages, tags, and folders directly on the server. Sometimes, however, you want to be able to look at messages while offline. To do that, I use offlineimap, paired with notmuch for searching through all my downloaded messages. I periodically run offlineimap from the command line to update my local store of messages, and when I want to browse or search through the full-text of old messages, I type muff. Muff is a bash alias I have defined to run

mutt -F $HOME/.muffrc

where $HOME/.muffrc is a small mutt configuration file that points Mutt to my local email store instead of to my IMAP server.

I didn’t know about notmuch until recently, and had to do some hacking to get it installed. It’s a great feature, though, because Mutt’s search functions take forever to search the bodies of email messages online. Mutt works great for finding messages if you know the sender, recipient, or a keyword in the subject, but if you want to search full messages or attachments, notmuch is the way to go.

To install notmuch on Lion, I had to use Macports to install the following dependencies:

  • Xapian-core 1.2.8
  • Xapian-bindings 1.2.8
  • Talloc 2.0.1
  • Gmime 2.4.23

When running the local configure command before installing notmuch, I added the --without-emacs flag. And before notmuch would work, I had to create a .cache directory in my $HOME directory.

Once I installed notmuch, I used these instructions to add some keybindings to my $HOME/.muffrc file that allow me to search all of my downloaded messages quickly.

Attachments and the .mailcap file

Viewing attachments is perhaps the least intuitive part of Mutt. It requires creating a ~/.mailcap file that specifies which applications should be used to open which kinds of attachments. I basically adopted this system wholesale, especially the script.

For example, these lines in my .mailcap file tell Mutt to open Microsoft Word documents in TextEdit, while allowing it to open *.docx files in Microsoft Word. Rich Text files are opened using Bean. HTML attachments and messages are piped through pandoc and converted to markdown for easy reading.

application/msword; /Users/wcm1/Scripts/ %s "-" '/Applications/' ; print=/Users/wcm1/Scripts/ %s 

application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.wordprocessingml.document; /Users/wcm1/Scripts/ %s "-" ; print=/Users/wcm1/Scripts/ %s 

application/rtf; /Users/wcm1/Scripts/ %s "-" '/Applications/' ; print=/Users/wcm1/Scripts/ %s

application/pdf; /Users/wcm1/Scripts/ %s "-" '/Applications/' ; print=/Users/wcm1/Scripts/ %s 

text/html; pandoc -f html -t markdown; copiousoutput; compose=vim %s

For the first four of these lines, the text that follows the second semicolon is not essential for viewing attachments. But using the “print” setting in a .mailcap file has allowed me to further extend Mutt’s ability to work with attachments, as described below.

My Peculiar Customizations

The tips above are essential, I’ve discovered, just for making Mutt workable as an email client. But I originally wanted to use Mutt for peculiar reasons specific to my workflow. In particular, I wanted a way to get the body of email messages into my plain-text GTD system. And because I receive lots of files that I need to convert to PDF, move to my iPad, and annotate or grade, I wanted a way to quickly do that without leaving the keyboard.

Piping Attachments

Unfortunately, unlike the nmh system that Ramsay described, Mutt doesn’t have an obvious way to pipe attachments like Microsoft Word documents to other Unix commands. Eventually I discovered a workaround using the “print” flag in my mailcap file. Like the set display_filter option, the mailcap print flag is intended for a fairly narrow purpose: it allows you to specify what command Mutt will use to send an attachment to the printer, like lpr. At some point, however, I realized or read that you could feed any command to the “print” flag. Printing from the attachment menu in Mutt will basically “pipe” the attachment to the command specified in the mailcap entry under “print.”

That’s why the mailcap entries I listed above often include something like this at the end:

print=/Users/wcm1/Scripts/ %s 

The script is just a simple shell script that accomplishes some of the idiosyncratic things I often want to do with my attachments. For example, when presented with a Word file, I usually want to do one of several things: convert it to a PDF and move it to a folder that syncs with my iPad; add a grading rubric if it’s a student paper; and/or add a note to my GTD system reminding me to read the paper. So I wrote a script that looks like this:

 # Based on by Eric Gebhart
 # Mutt puts everything in /tmp by default. 
 # This gets the basic filename from the full pathname.
 newfile=`basename $1`
 # Copy the file to our new spot so mutt will not delete it
 # before the script has a chance to print it.
 cp $1 $newfile
 # Prompt user for desired script.
 echo "What do you want to do? (a)nnotate, (r)ubric, (i)nbox or (o)ther folder?"
 read -n 1 SWITCH
 echo ""
 if [ $SWITCH = "a" ]; then
     $HOME/Scripts/ $newfile
 elif [ $SWITCH = "r" ]; then
     $HOME/Scripts/ $newfile
     pdffile=$(echo $newfile | sed -E 's/\.do[cx]+/\.pdf/g')
     $HOME/Scripts/append.rb $pdffile && mv $pdffile $HOME/.Trash/
     mv $newfile $HOME/.Trash/
 elif [ $SWITCH = "i" ]; then
     $HOME/Scripts/ -o $HOME/Inbox/ $newfile
     mv $newfile $HOME/.Trash/
     echo "Which folder in home do you want to print PDF to?"
     read OTHERPATH
     $HOME/Scripts/ -o /Users/wcm1/"$OTHERPATH" $newfile
     mv $newfile $HOME/.Trash/

Assuming this script is listed in my mailcap file under the appropriate entries, here’s what happens when I choose to “print” an attachment in Mutt: I get a brief dialog asking me what I want to do. Based on my input, the script then re-routes the file to other scripts that accomplish my particular tasks. It’s a somewhat clunky workaround for piping attachments, but it works great and is, by its very nature, extremely customizable.

Integration with GTD

The other peculiar goal I wanted to accomplish with Mutt was a way to get the body of email messages directly into my plain-text GTD system. This problem was actually much easier to solve because Mutt does have excellent support for piping messages to shell commands. Within Mutt’s pager, all I have to do is hit the vertical bar to pipe the message to any command I choose. So I wrote up a simple script that takes the message, cleans it up, and puts it in a plain text file whose title I specify within Mutt.

In practice, that means if I get a message I need to act on, I hit | and then type mqq "Do something about this". Behind the scenes, the script will put that “to do” in the folder where I keep my tasks, together with a copy of the message that I can refer to later from within Notational Velocity or any other text editor I choose.

Like many of the other tasks I’ve described here, it was possible to do something similar from within Apple Mail, but using a GUI program would have required me (in this example), to use the mouse or a hotkey to copy the message text, which I then probably would have pasted in Notational Velocity. Those two steps are now reduced to one that does everything without having to leave the keyboard. Whether that’s a savings that justifies using Mutt remains an open question, but for now I’m happy with this setup—happy enough to leave it alone for the foreseeable future!